edict (2011.05.25-1) edict_doc.txt

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+                                 E D I C T
+
+                      JAPANESE/ENGLISH DICTIONARY FILE
+
+Copyright (C) 2001 The Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group,
+Monash University.
+
+Contents:
+
+   * INTRODUCTION
+   * CURRENT VERSION
+   * FORMAT
+   * EDICT HISTORY
+   * COPYRIGHT ISSUES
+   * LEXICOGRAPHICAL DETAILS
+   * NEW JMDICT PROJECT
+   * USAGE
+   * CONTRIBUTIONS
+   * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
+   * APPENDIX A: EDICT LICENCE STATEMENT
+   * APPENDIX B. LANGUAGE CODES FROM ISO 639
+
+INTRODUCTION
+
+The EDICT file results from a long-running project to produce a freely
+available Japanese/English Dictionary in machine-readable form.
+
+The EDICT file is copyright, and is distributed in accordance with the
+Licence Statement, which can found at the WWW site of the Electronic
+Dictionary Research and Development Group who are the owners of the
+copyright.
+
+CURRENT VERSION
+
+The version date and sequence number is included in the dictionary itself
+under the entry "EDICT". (Actually it is under the JIS-ASCII code "????".
+This keeps it as the first entry when it is sorted.)
+
+The master copy of EDICT is in the pub/nihongo directory of
+ftp.cc.monash.edu.au. There are other copies around, but they may not be as
+up-to-date. The easy way to check if the version you have is the latest is
+from the size/date.
+
+As of V96-001, the EDICT file no longer contains proper names. These have
+been moved to a separate file called "ENAMDICT". From V99-002, the EDICT
+file has been generated from an extended dictionary database which includes
+additional fields and information. See the later section on the new JMdict
+project for details of this.
+
+FORMAT
+
+EDICT's format is that of the original "EDICT" format used by the early PC
+Japanese word-processor MOKE (Mark's Own Kanji Editor). It uses EUC-JP
+coding for kana and kanji, however this can be converted to JIS
+(ISO-2022-JP) or Shift-JIS by any of the several conversion programs around.
+It is a text file with one entry per line. The format of entries is:
+
+KANJI [KANA] /English_1/English_2/.../
+
+or
+
+KANA /English_1/.../
+
+(NB: Only the KANJI and KANA are in EUC; all the other characters, including
+spaces, must be ASCII.)
+
+The English translations are deliberately brief, as the application of the
+dictionary is expected to be primarily on-line look-ups, etc.
+
+The EDICT file is not intended to have its entries in any particular order.
+In fact it almost always is in order as a by-product of the update method I
+use, however there is no guarantee of this. (The order is almost always JIS
++ alphabetical, starting with the head-word.)
+
+EDICT HISTORY
+
+EDICT has developed as follows:
+
+  a. it began with the basic EDICT distributed with MOKE 2.0. This was
+     compiled by MOKE's author, Mark Edwards, with assistance from Spencer
+     Green. Mark kindly released this material to the EDICT project. A
+     number of corrections were made to the MOKE original, e.g. spelling
+     mistakes, minor mistranslations, etc. It also had a lot of
+     duplications, which have been removed. It contained about 1900 unique
+     entries. Mark Edwards has also kindly given permission for the
+     vocabulary files developed for KG (Kanji Guess) to be added to EDICT.
+  b. additions by Jim Breen. I laboriously keyed in a ~2000 entry dictionary
+     used in my first year nihongo course at Swinburne Institute of
+     Technology years ago (I was given permission by the authors to do
+     this). I then worked through other vocabulary lists trying to make sure
+     major entries were not omitted. The English-to-kana entries in the SKK
+     files were added also. This task is continuing, although it has slowed
+     down, and I suspect I will run out of energy eventually. Apart from
+     that, I have made a large number of additions during normal reading of
+     Japanese text and fj.* news using JREADER and XJDIC. (As of November
+     2001 I am still adding entries.)
+
+  c. additions by others. Many people have contributed entries and
+     corrections to EDICT. I am forever on the lookout for sources of
+     material, provided it is genuinely available for use in the Project. I
+     am grateful to Theresa Martin who an early supplier a lot of useful
+     material, plus very perceptive corrections. Hidekazu Tozaki has also
+     been a great help with tidying up a lot of awry entries, and helping me
+     identify obscure kanji compounds. Kurt Stueber has been an assiduous
+     keyer of many useful entries. A large group of contributions came from
+     Sony, where Rik Smoody had put together a large online dictionary.
+     Another batch came from the Japanese-German JDDICT file in similar
+     format that Helmut Goldenstein keyed (with permission) from the
+     Langenscheidt edited by Hadamitzky. Harold Rowe was great help with
+     much of the translation. During 1994, Dr Yo Tomita, then at the
+     University of Leeds, conducted a massive proof-reading of the entire
+     file, for which I am most grateful. Jeffrey Friedl at Omron in Kyoto
+     has also been a most helpful contributor and error-detector. During
+     1995, I have been keeping an eye on the "honyaku" mailing list, wherein
+     Japanese-English translators discuss thorny issues. From this I have
+     derived many new entries, and many updates to existing entries. To the
+     many honyakujin, my thanks.
+
+A reasonably full list of contributors is at the back of this file, although
+I am sure to have missed a few.
+
+At this stage EDICT has many more entries than many good commercial
+dictionaries, which typically have 20,000+ non-name entries with examples,
+etc. It is certainly bigger than some of the smaller printed dictionaries,
+and when used in conjunction with a search-and-display program like JDIC or
+XJDIC it provides a highly effective on-line dictionary service.
+
+COPYRIGHT ISSUES
+
+Dictionary copyright is a difficult point, because clearly the first
+lexicographer who published "inu means dog" could not claim a copyright
+violation over all subsequent Japanese dictionaries. While it is usual to
+consult other dictionaries for "accurate lexicographic information", as
+Nelson put it, wholesale copying is, of course, not permissible. What makes
+each dictionary unique (and copyrightable) is the particular selection of
+words, the phrasing of the meanings, the presentation of the contents (a
+very important point in the case of EDICT), and the means of publication. Of
+course, the fact that for the most part the kanji and kana of each entry are
+coming from public sources, and the structure and layout of the entries
+themselves are quite unlike those in any published dictionary, adds a degree
+of protection to EDICT.
+
+The advice I have received from people who know about these things is that
+EDICT is just as much a new dictionary as any others on the market. Readers
+may see an entry which looks familiar, and say "Aha! That comes from the XYZ
+Jiten!". They may be right, and they may be wrong. After all there aren't
+too many translations of neko. Let me make one thing quite clear, despite
+considerable temptation (Electronic Books can be easily decoded), NONE of
+this dictionary came from commercial machine-readable dictionaries. I have a
+case of RSI in my right elbow to prove it.
+
+Please do not contribute entries to EDICT which have come directly from
+copyrightable sources. It is hard to check these, and you may be
+jeopardizing EDICT's status.
+
+LEXICOGRAPHICAL DETAILS
+
+Introduction
+
+EDICT is actually a Japanese->English dictionary, although the words within
+it can be selected in either language using appropriate software. (JDIC uses
+it to provide both E->J and J->E functionality.)
+
+The early stages of EDICT had size limitations due to its usage (MOKE scans
+it sequentially and JDXGEN, which is JDIC's index generator, held it in
+RAM.) This meant that examples of usage could not be included, and inclusion
+of phrases was very limited. JDIC/JDXGEN can now handle a much larger
+dictionary, but the compact format has continued.
+
+No inflections of verbs or adjectives have been included, except in
+idiomatic expressions. Similarly particles are handled as separate entries.
+Adverbs formed from adjectives (-ku or ni) are generally not included. Verbs
+are, of course, in the plain or "dictionary" form.
+
+Priority Entries
+
+Starting with the 2001 editions, approximately 20,000 entries comprising the
+most commonly-used words in Japanese are marked with a "(P)" at the end of
+the entry. This list has been identified by examining several small
+dictionaries, and lists of common gairaigo from Japanese newspapers.
+
+Parts of Speech
+
+In working on EDICT, bearing in mind I want to use it in MOKE and with JDIC,
+I had to come up with a solution to the problem of adjectival nouns
+[keiyoudoushi] (e.g. kirei and kantan), nouns which can be used adjectivally
+with the particle "no" and verbs formed by adding suru (e.g. benkyousuru).
+If I put entries in EDICT with the "na" and "suru" included, MOKE would not
+find a match when they are omitted or, the case of suru, inflected. What I
+decided to do is to put the basic noun into the dictionary and add "(vs)"
+where it can be used to form a verb with suru, "(a-no)" for common "no"
+usage, and "(an)" if it is an adjectival noun. Entries appeared as:
+
+KANJI [benkyou] /study (vs)/
+KANJI [kantan] /simple (an)/
+
+In early 2001, as part of the JMdict project (see below), I completely
+revised this system, instead introducing a comprehensive system of Part of
+Speech (POS) tags. In the EDICT version of the file these tags appear in
+parentheses at the start of the entry, separated into general tags and POS
+tags.
+
+The (hopefully) full list of such markers is:
+
+abbr       abbreviation
+adj        adjective (keiyoushi)
+adv        adverb (fukushi)
+adj-na    adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyodoshi)
+adj-no    nouns which may take the genitive case particle "no"
+adj-pn     pre-noun adjectival (rentaishi)
+adj-s      special adjective (e.g. ookii)
+adj-t      "taru" adjective
+arch       archaism
+aux        auxiliary word or phrase
+aux-v      auxiliary verb
+conj       conjunction
+col        colloquialism
+exp        Expressions (phrases, clauses, etc.)
+ek         exclusively kanji, rarely just in kana
+fam        familiar language
+fem        female term or language
+gikun      gikun (meaning) reading
+gram       grammatical term
+hon        honorific or respectful (sonkeigo) language
+hum        humble (kenjougo) language
+id         idiomatic expression
+int        interjection (kandoushi)
+iK         word containing irregular kanji usage
+ik         word containing irregular kana usage
+io         irregular okurigana usage
+MA         martial arts term
+male       male term or language
+m-sl       manga slang
+n          noun (common) (futsuumeishi)
+n-adv      adverbial noun (fukushitekimeishi)
+n-t        noun (temporal) (jisoumeishi)
+n-suf     noun, used as a suffix
+neg        negative (in a negative sentence, or with negative verb)
+neg-v      negative verb (when used with)
+obs        obsolete term
+obsc       obscure term
+oK         word containing out-dated kanji
+ok         out-dated or obsolete kana usage
+pol        polite (teineigo) language
+pref       prefix
+qv         quod vide (see another entry)
+sl         slang
+suf        suffix
+uK         word usually written using kanji alone
+uk         word usually written using kana alone
+v1         Ichidan verb
+v5         Godan verb (not completely classified)
+v5u        Godan verb with `u' ending
+v5k        Godan verb with `ku' ending
+v5g        Godan verb with `gu' ending
+v5s        Godan verb with `su' ending
+v5t        Godan verb with `tsu' ending
+v5n        Godan verb with `nu' ending
+v5b        Godan verb with `bu' ending
+v5m        Godan verb with `mu' ending
+v5r        Godan verb with `ru' ending
+v5k-s      Godan verb - Iku/Yuku special class
+v5z        Godan verb - -zuru special class (alternative form of -jiru verbs)
+v5aru      Godan verb - -aru special class
+v5uru      Godan verb - Uru old class verb (old form of Eru)
+vi         intransitive verb
+vs         noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru
+vs-s       suru verb - special class
+vk         Kuru verb - special class
+vt         transitive verb
+vulg       vulgar expression or word
+X          rude or X-rated term (not displayed in educational software)
+
+Multiple Senses
+
+From the 2001 editions of EDICT, the differing senses associated with the
+Japanese head-words are being progessively marked. The marking takes the
+form of a "(1)", "(2)", etc. in front of the senses.
+
+Spellings
+
+I have endeavoured to cater for many possible variants of English
+translation and spelling. Where appropriate different translations are
+included for national variants (e.g. autumn/fall). I use Oxford (British)
+standard spelling (-our, -ize) for the entries I make, but I leave other
+entries in the national spelling of the submitter.
+
+At some stage in the future I intend to regularize the English spellings in
+such a way that allows searches on either British or American spellings to
+be successful.
+
+Gairaigo and Regional Words
+
+For gairaigo which have not been derived from English words, I have
+attempted to indicate the source language and the word in that language.
+Languages have been coded in the two-letter codes from the ISO 639:1988
+"Code for the representation of names of languages" standard, e.g. "(fr:
+avec)". See Appendix C for more on this. (Thanks to Holger Gruber for
+suggesting this language coding.)
+
+In addition to the language codes described in Appendix C, a number of tags
+are used to indicate that a word or phrase is associated with a particular
+regional language variant within Japan. The tags are:
+
+kyb     Kyoto-ben
+osb     Osaka-ben
+ksb     Kansai-ben
+ktb     Kantou-ben
+tsb     Tosa-ben
+
+In the case of gairaigo which have a meaning which is not apparent from the
+original (English) words, the literal transcription is included, with the
+tag (lit).
+
+NEW JMDICT PROJECT
+
+Early in 1999 work began on the JMdict project, which aims to extend the
+structure and content of the EDICT file to enable it to contain additional
+information and provided an improved service to users.
+
+The project has several broad goals:
+
+  a. to convert the EDICT file to a new dictionary structure which overcomes
+     the deficiencies in the current structure. With regard to this goal,
+     the particular structural and content aspects to be addressed include,
+     but are not limited to:
+       i. the handling of orthographical variation (e.g. in kanji usage,
+          okurigana usage, readings) within the single entry;
+      ii. additional and more appropriately associated tagging of
+          grammatical and other information;
+     iii. provision for separation of different senses (polysemy) in the
+          translations;
+      iv. provision for the inclusion of translational equivalents from
+          several languages;
+       v. provision for inclusion of examples of the usage of words;
+      vi. provision for cross-references to related entries.
+  b. to publish the dictionary in a standard format which is accessible by a
+     wide range of software tools; [It is proposed that this goal be
+     addressed by developing the structure so that it can be released as an
+     XML document, with an associated XML DTD.
+  c. to retain backward compatibility with the original EDICT structure in
+     order to enable legacy software systems to use later versions of the
+     EDICT files.
+
+For more information on the JMdict project, please see the documentation
+files.
+
+By May 1999 the EDICT file had been converted into the new format. A major
+part of this consisted of identifying and combining entries which were
+effectively variants of each other.
+
+Since V99-002, the EDICT file has been generated from the new format. This
+has meant:
+
+  a. a marginal increase in the number of entries, as there is an increased
+     number of variants;
+  b. the English fields of the variant entries are now exactly the same, as
+     they have generated from the single expanded entry;
+  c. the tags such as (vs), (an), etc. now appear before the first word of
+     the English fields.
+
+USAGE
+
+EDICT can be used, with acknowledgement, for any free software or server, or
+included in file and software distributions at a nominal charge for the
+distribution medium. It is also available under non-exclusive licence for
+commercial uses. Consult the Licence Statement information at Appendix A.
+
+It is, of course, the main dictionary used by PD and GPL Copyright software
+such as JDIC, JREADER, XJDIC, MacJDic, etc. It can be used as the dictionary
+within MOKE (it may need to be renamed JTOE.DCT if used with version 2.1 of
+MOKE), and it is also used by the NJSTAR and JWP Word Processor packages.
+
+CONTRIBUTIONS
+
+I will be delighted if people send me corrections, suggestions, and
+ESPECIALLY additions. Before ripping in with a lot of suggestions, make sure
+you have the latest version, as others may have already made the same
+comments.
+
+The preferred format for submissions is a JIS, EUC or Shift-JIS file
+(uuencoded for safety) containing replacement/new entries. This can be
+emailed to me at the address at the end of this file.
+
+Feel free to use the following format:
+
+NEW: KANJI1 [kana1] /new entry #1/
+
+NEW: KANJI2 [kana2] /new entry #2/
+
+old: KANJI3 [kana3] /old entry to be replaced/
+new: KANJI3 [kana3] /replacement entry/
+
+DEL: KANJI4 [kana4] /entry to be deleted/
+
+Please provide an annotated reason for any deletions or amendments you send.
+
+I prefer not to get a "diff" or "patch" file as the master EDICT is under
+continuous revision, and may have had quite a few changes since you got your
+copy.
+
+Users intending to make submissions to EDICT should follow the following
+simple rules:
+
+   * all verbs in plain form. The English must begin with "to ....". Add the
+     verb type in some prominent place.
+
+   * add (adj-na) or (adj-no) or (vs) as appropriate to nouns. Do not put
+     the "na" or "no" particles on the Japanese, or the "suru" auxiliary
+     verb. For entries which have (vs), do not enter them as verb
+     infinitives (e.g. "to cook"), instead enter them as
+     gerunds/participles/whatever (e.g. cooking (vs)).
+
+   * indicate prefixes and suffixes by "(pref)" and "(suf)" in the first
+     English entry, not by using "-" in the kanji or kana.
+
+   * do not add definite or indefinite articles (e.g. "a", "an", "the", etc)
+     to English nouns unless they are necessary to distinguish the word from
+     another usage type or homonym.
+
+   * do not guess the kanji or the reading. If you don't know them, don't
+     send it to me. I will check all incoming suggestions, and I get grumpy
+     when I find sloppy errors. One of the most persistent problems in
+     editing EDICT is finding and eliminating incorrect kanji and kana.
+
+   * do not use the "/", "[" or "]" characters except in their separating
+     roles.
+
+   * if you are using a reference in romaji form, make sure you have the
+     correct kana for "too/tou" and "zu", where the Hepburn romaji is often
+     ambiguous.
+
+   * do not use kana or kanji in the "English" fields. Where it is necessary
+     to use a Japanese word, e.g. kanto, use Hepburn romaji.
+
+   * make sure your kana is correct. A persistent problem is the submission
+     of words like "honyaku" as ho+nya+ku instead of the correct ho+n+ya+ku.
+
+   * do not include words formed by common Japanese suffixes, such as
+     "-teki", unless they cannot be deduced from the root.
+
+ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
+
+The following people, in roughly chronological order, have played a part in
+the development of EDICT. (I stopped adding to this list some years ago, so
+it is of historical interest now.)
+
+Mark Edwards, Spencer Green, Alina Skoutarides, Takako Machida, Theresa
+Martin, Satoshi Tadokoro, Stephen Chung, Hidekazu Tozaki, Clifford Olling,
+David Cooper, Ken Lunde, Joel Schulman, Hiroto Kagotani, Truett Smith, Mike
+Rosenlof, Harold Rowe, Al Harkom, Per Hammarlund, Atsushi Fukumoto, John
+Crossley, Bob Kerns, Frank O'Carroll, Rik Smoody, Scott Trent, Curtis
+Eubanks, Jamie Packer, Hitoshi Doi, Thalawyn Silverwood, Makato Shimojima,
+Bart Mathias, Koichi Mori, Steven Sprouse, Jeffrey Friedl, Yazuru Hiraga,
+Kurt Stueber, Rafael Santos, Bruce Casner, Masato Toho, Carolyn Norton,
+Simon Clippingdale, Shiino Masayoshi, Susumu Miki, Yushi Kaneda, Masahiko
+Tachibana, Naoki Shibata, Yuzuru Hiraga, Yasuaki Nakano, Atsu Yagasaki,
+Hitoshi Oi, Chizuko Kanazawa, Lars Huttar, Jonathan Hanna, Yoshimasa Tsuji,
+Masatsugu Mamimura, Keiichi Nakata, Masako Nomura, Hiroshi Kamabe, Shi-Wen
+Peng, Norihiro Okada, Jun-ichi Nakamura, Yoshiyuki Mizuno, Minoru Terada,
+Itaru Ichikawa, Toru Matsuda, Katsumi Inoue, John Finlayson, David Luke,
+Iain Sinclair, Warwick Hockley, Jamii Corley, Howard Landman, Tom Bryce, Jim
+Thomas, Paul Burchard, Kenji Saito, Ken Eto, Niibe Yutaka, Hideyuki Ozaki,
+Kouichi Suzuki, Sakaguchi Takeyuki, Haruo Furuhashi, Takashi Hattori,
+Yoshiyuki Kondo, Kusakabe Youichi, Nobuo Sakiyama, Kouhei Matsuda, Toru
+Sato, Takayuki Ito, Masayuki Tokoshima, Kiyo Inaba, Dan Cohn, Yo Tomita, Ed
+Hall, Takashi Imamura, Bernard Greenberg, Michael Raine, Akiko Nagase, Ben
+Bullock, Scott Draves, Matthew Haines, Andy Howells, Takayuki Ito, Anders
+Brabaek, Michael Chachich, Masaki Muranaka, Paul Randolph, Vesa Karhu, Bruce
+Bailey, Gal Shalif, Riichiro Saito, Keith Rogers, Steve Petersen, Bill
+Smith, Barry Byrne, Satoshi Kuramoto, Jason Molenda, Travis Stewart,
+Yuichiro Kushiro Keiko Okushi, Wayne Lammers, Koichi Fujino, Joerg Fischer,
+Satoru Miyazaki, Gaspard Gendreau, David Olson, Peter Evans, Steven
+Zaveloff, Larry Tyrrell, Heinz Clemencon, Justin Mayer, David Jones, Holger
+Gruber, David Wilson, John De Hoog, Stephen Davis, Dan Crevier, Ron Granich,
+Bruce Raup, Scott Childress, Richard Warmington, Jean-Jacques Labarthe, Matt
+Bloedel, Szabolcs Varga, Alan Bram, Hidetaka Koie, David Villareale,
+Hirokazu Ohata, Toshiki Sasabe, William Maton, Tom Salmon, Kian Yap, Paul
+Denisowski, Glen Pankow, Richard Northcott, Roger Meunier, Petteri Kettunen,
+Jeff Korpa, Kanji Haitani, Liam O'Brien, Serdar Yegulalp, Jonathan Way,
+Gururaj Rao, Yoichiro Niitsu, Ralph Seewald, Andreas Jordell, Chua Hian
+Koon, Hartmut Pilch, Shouichi Takeuchi, Ayumu Yasutomi, Mike Wright, James
+Rose, Nich Hill.
+
+Jim Breen
+(jwb@csse.monash.edu.au)
+School of Computer Science & Software Engineering
+Monash University
+Clayton 3168
+AUSTRALIA
+  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
+APPENDIX A: EDICT LICENCE STATEMENT
+
+In March 2000, James William Breen assigned ownership of the copyright of
+the dictionary files assembled, coordinated and edited by him to the The
+Electronic Dictionary Research and Development Group at Monash University.
+
+Information about the formal usage arrangement for EDICT can be found on the
+Group's WWW page at: http://www.csse.monash.edu.au/groups/edrdg/
+
+In summary, EDICT can be used, with acknowledgement, for any free software
+or server, or included in file and software distributions at a nominal
+charge for the distribution medium. It is also available under non-exclusive
+licence for commercial uses.
+
+  ------------------------------------------------------------------------
+APPENDIX B. LANGUAGE CODES FROM ISO 639
+
+The following language codes have been used with non-English derived
+gairaigo. They have been derived from the ISO 639:1988 "Code for the
+representation of names of languages" standard.
+
+ar      Arabic
+zh      Chinese (Zhongwen)
+de      German (Deutsch)
+en      English
+fr      French
+el      Greek (Ellinika)
+iw      Hebrew (Iwrith)
+ja      Japanese
+ko      Korean
+nl      Dutch (Nederlands)
+no      Norwegian
+pl      Polish
+ru      Russian
+sv      Swedish
+bo      Tibetan (Bodskad)
+eo      Esperanto
+es      Spanish
+in      Indonesian
+it      Italian
+lt      Latin
+pt      Portugese
+hi      Hindi
+ur      Urdu
+mn      Mongolian
+kl      Inuit (formerly Eskimo)
+
+And I have added the following, which are not in the Standard:
+
+ai      Ainu